June 24th Romans, 2
1: Therefore thou art inexcusable, O man, whosoever thou art that judgest: for wherein thou judgest another, thou condemnest thyself; for thou that judgest doest the same things. 2: But we are sure that the judgment of God is according to truth against them which commit such things. 3: And thinkest thou this, O man, that judgest them which do such things, and doest the same, that thou shalt escape the judgment of God? 4: Or despisest thou the riches of his goodness and forbearance and longsuffering; not knowing that the goodness of God leadeth thee to repentance? 5: But after thy hardness and impenitent heart treasurest up unto thyself wrath against the day of wrath and revelation of the righteous judgment of God; 6: Who will render to every man according to his deeds: 7: To them who by patient continuance in well doing seek for glory and honour and immortality, eternal life: 8: But unto them that are contentious, and do not obey the truth, but obey unrighteousness, indignation and wrath, 9: Tribulation and anguish, upon every soul of man that doeth evil, of the Jew first, and also of the Gentile; 10: But glory, honour, and peace, to every man that worketh good, to the Jew first, and also to the Gentile: 11: For there is no respect of persons with God. 12: For as many as have sinned without law shall also perish without law: and as many as have sinned in the law shall be judged by the law; 13: (For not the hearers of the law are just before God, but the doers of the law shall be justified. 14: For when the Gentiles, which have not the law, do by nature the things contained in the law, these, having not the law, are a law unto themselves: 15: Which shew the work of the law written in their hearts, their conscience also bearing witness, and their thoughts the mean while accusing or else excusing one another;) 16: In the day when God shall judge the secrets of men by Jesus Christ according to my gospel.
Having established the fact of sin in the human heart Paul goes on to establish the truth of the righteous judgment of God. He says men are without excuse before God because what they say is sin in other people, becomes the principle in which God will judge them, and God will judge them of the same sin. The judgment of God will be truthful. Those who do the very same things that they say are sin must not think that they will escape the judgment of God. Why do men despise the richness of the goodness and patience of God? Don’t they know that the goodness of God should lead men to think again about how they live in relation to God? But those who turn a deaf ear to God and refuse to be sorrowful for sin only store up the wrath of God which will be revealed in the righteous judgment of God, when God will judge in justice according to every mans deeds. And how will God render to every man according to his deeds? Those who patiently continued to do righteous deeds he will render to them glory, honour and immortality, that is eternal life. But to those who live in opposition to Gods word and do not obey the truth of God but do unrighteous deeds he will render to them wrath and righteous resentment. He will render tribulation and torment on every man that does evil deeds. He will do this to the Jews first and also to Gentiles. God does not have any favourites. Those who sin outside the covenant of Israel will perish outside the covenant but those who sin according to the law are judged according to the law. (It is not just those who hear the Law of Moses that are righteous but those who do it are righteous. Because Gentiles who do not have the Mosaic law, when they do by nature the things said in the Law they are a law unto themselves. They show the righteous deeds of the Law written in their minds. And their conscience either accuses them of excuses them.) The verses 13-15 are in parenthesis and so verse 16 picks up what was said in verse 12. Which was…Those who sin outside the law will perish outside the law but those who sin according to the law are judged according to the law - on the day when God will judge the secrets of men by Jesus Christ according to my gospel. Gentiles will be judged according to conscience by the Jews will be judged according to Law.
Paul in this passage is describing the sinful lives and judgment of God on men outside of the Grace of God. Those that are Gentiles will be judged according to their conscience and those who are Jews will be judged according to the Mosaic Law.